From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to navigationJump to search This article is about the country in Western Europe. For other uses, see Belgium (disambiguation). “Belgique” redirects here. For the city in the United States, see Belgique, Missouri.
|Kingdom of Belgium|
Koninkrijk België (Dutch)Royaume de Belgique (French)Königreich Belgien (German)
|Flag Coat of arms|
|Motto: “Eendracht maakt macht” (Dutch)|
“L’union fait la force” (French)
“Einigkeit macht stark” (German)
“Unity makes strength“
(English: “The Brabantian”)
|Location of Belgium (dark green)– in Europe (green & dark grey)|
– in the European Union (green)
and largest city
|Religion (2019)||60% Christianity —54% Roman Catholic —6% Other Christian 31% No religion 7% Islam 2% Other|
|• Prime Minister||Alexander De Croo|
|• Upper house||Senate|
|• Lower house||Chamber of Representatives|
|Independence (from the Netherlands)|
|• Declared||4 October 1830|
|• Recognised||19 April 1839|
|• Total||30,689 km2 (11,849 sq mi) (136th)|
|• Water (%)||0.71 (as of 2015)|
|• 2020 estimate||11,492,641 (82nd)|
|• Density||376/km2 (973.8/sq mi) (22nd)|
|GDP (PPP)||2020 estimate|
|• Total||$575,808,000,000 (36th)|
|• Per capita||$50,114 (18th)|
|GDP (nominal)||2020 estimate|
|• Total||$503,416,000,000 (26th)|
|• Per capita||$43,814 (16th)|
|Gini (2018)|| 25.6|
|HDI (2019)|| 0.919|
very high · 17th
|Currency||Euro (€) (EUR)|
|Time zone||UTC+1 (CET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+2 (CEST)|
|ISO 3166 code||BE|
|The flag’s official proportions of 13:15 are rarely seen; proportions of 2:3 or similar are more common.The Brussels region is the de facto capital, but the City of Brussels municipality is the de jure capital.The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.|
Belgium (Dutch: België [ˈbɛlɣijə] (listen); French: Belgique [bɛlʒik] (listen); German: Belgien [ˈbɛlɡi̯ən] (listen)), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe. It is bordered by the Netherlands to the north, Germany to the east, Luxembourg to the southeast, France to the southwest, and the North Sea to the northwest. It covers an area of 30,689 km2 (11,849 sq mi) and has a population of more than 11.5 million, making it the 22nd most densely populated country in the world and the 6th most densely populated country in Europe, with a density of 376 per square kilometre (970/sq mi). The capital and largest city is Brussels; other major cities are Antwerp, Ghent, Charleroi, Liège, Bruges, Namur, and Leuven.
Belgium is a sovereign state and a federal constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary system. Its institutional organization is complex and is structured on both regional and linguistic grounds. It is divided into three highly autonomous regions: the Flemish Region (Flanders) in the north, the Walloon Region (Wallonia) in the south, and the Brussels-Capital Region. Brussels is the smallest and most densely populated region, as well as the richest region in terms of GDP per capita.
Belgium is home to two main linguistic communities: the Dutch-speaking Flemish Community, which constitutes about 60 percent of the population, and the French-speaking Community, which constitutes about 40 percent of the population. A small German-speaking Community, numbering around one percent, exists in the East Cantons. The Brussels-Capital Region is officially bilingual in French and Dutch, although French is the dominant language. Belgium’s linguistic diversity and related political conflicts are reflected in its complex system of governance, made up of six different governments.
The country as it exists today was established following the 1830 Belgian Revolution, when it seceded from the Netherlands, which had itself only existed since 1815. The name chosen for the new state is derived from the Latin word Belgium, used in Julius Caesar‘s “Gallic Wars“, to describe a nearby region in the period around 55 BCE. Belgium is part of an area known as the Low Countries, historically a somewhat larger region than the Benelux group of states, as it also included parts of northern France. Since the Middle Ages, its central location near several major rivers has meant that the area has been relatively prosperous, connected commercially and politically to its bigger neighbours. Belgium has unfortunately also been the battleground of European powers, earning the moniker the “Battlefield of Europe”, a reputation strengthened in the 20th century by both world wars.
Belgium participated in the Industrial Revolution and, during the course of the 20th century, possessed a number of colonies in Africa. Between 1888 and 1908, Leopold II, king of Belgium, perpetrated one of the largest massacres in human history in Congo Free State, which was his private estate, and not yet a colony of Belgium. Estimates of the death toll are disputed but millions of people, a significant part of the population, died for the sake of rubber and ivory exports.
The second half of the 20th century was marked by rising tensions between the Dutch-speaking and the French-speaking citizens fuelled by differences in language and culture and the unequal economic development of Flanders and Wallonia. This continuing antagonism has led to several far-reaching reforms, resulting in a transition from a unitary to a federal arrangement during the period from 1970 to 1993. Despite the reforms, tensions between the groups have remained, if not increased; there is significant separatism particularly among the Flemish; controversial language laws exist such as the municipalities with language facilities; and the formation of a coalition government took 18 months following the June 2010 federal election, a world record. Unemployment in Wallonia is more than double that of Flanders, which boomed after the Second World War.
Belgium is one of the six founding countries of the European Union and its capital, Brussels, hosts the official seats of the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, and the European Council, as well as one of two seats of the European Parliament (the other being Strasbourg). Belgium is also a founding member of the Eurozone, NATO, OECD, and WTO, and a part of the trilateral Benelux Union and the Schengen Area. Brussels hosts the headquarters of many major international organizations such as NATO.[A]
Belgium is a developed country, with an advanced high-income economy. It has very high standards of living, quality of life, healthcare, education, and is categorized as “very high” in the Human Development Index. It also ranks as one of the safest or most peaceful countries in the world.
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