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Flag of Thailand
Krung Thep Maha Nakhon
Special administrative area
Clockwise from top: Si LomSathon business district, the Giant Swing, Victory Monument, Rama VIII Bridge, Wat Arun, and the Grand Palace
Location within Thailand
Coordinates: 13°45′09″N 100°29′39″ECoordinates: 13°45′09″N 100°29′39″E[1]
RegionCentral Thailand
Settledc. 15th century
Founded as capital21 April 1782
Re-incorporated13 December 1972
Founded byKing Rama I
Governing bodyBangkok Metropolitan Administration
 • TypeSpecial administrative area
 • GovernorAswin Kwanmuang
 • City1,568.737 km2 (605.693 sq mi)
 • Metro[2]7,761.6 km2 (2,996.8 sq mi)
Elevation[3]1.5 m (4.9 ft)
Population (2010 census)[4]
 • City8,305,218
 • Estimate (2020)[5]10,539,000
 • Density5,300/km2 (14,000/sq mi)
 • Metro14,626,225
 • Metro density1,900/km2 (4,900/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+07:00 (ICT)
Postal code10###
Area code(s)02
ISO 3166 codeTH-10

Bangkok[a] is the capital and most populous city of Thailand. It is known in Thai as Krung Thep Maha Nakhon[b] or simply Krung Thep.[c] The city occupies 1,568.7 square kilometres (605.7 sq mi) in the Chao Phraya River delta in central Thailand and has an estimated population of 10.539 million as of 2020, 15.3 percent of the country’s population. Over fourteen million people (22.2 percent) lived within the surrounding Bangkok Metropolitan Region at the 2010 census, making Bangkok an extreme primate city, dwarfing Thailand’s other urban centres in both size and importance to the national economy.

Bangkok traces its roots to a small trading post during the Ayutthaya Kingdom in the 15th century, which eventually grew and became the site of two capital cities: Thonburi in 1768 and Rattanakosin in 1782. Bangkok was at the heart of the modernization of Siam, later renamed Thailand, during the late-19th century, as the country faced pressures from the West. The city was at the centre of Thailand’s political struggles throughout the 20th century, as the country abolished absolute monarchy, adopted constitutional rule, and underwent numerous coups and several uprisings. The city, incorporated as a special administrative area under the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration in 1972, grew rapidly during the 1960s through the 1980s and now exerts a significant impact on Thailand’s politics, economy, education, media and modern society.

The Asian investment boom in the 1980s and 1990s led many multinational corporations to locate their regional headquarters in Bangkok. The city is now a regional force in finance and business. It is an international hub for transport and health care, and has emerged as a centre for the arts, fashion, and entertainment. The city is known for its street life and cultural landmarks, as well as its red-light districts. The Grand Palace and Buddhist temples including Wat Arun and Wat Pho stand in contrast with other tourist attractions such as the nightlife scenes of Khaosan Road and Patpong. Bangkok is among the world’s top tourist destinations, and has been named the world’s most visited city consistently in several international rankings.

Bangkok’s rapid growth coupled with little urban planning has resulted in a haphazard cityscape and inadequate infrastructure. Despite an extensive expressway network, an inadequate road network and substantial private car usage have led to chronic and crippling traffic congestion, which caused severe air pollution in the 1990s. The city has since turned to public transport in an attempt to solve the problem, operating five rapid transit lines and building other public transit, but congestion still remains a prevalent issue. The city faces long-term environmental threats such as land subsidence, which contributes to frequent flooding, an issue expected to be exacerbated by the effects of climate change.

(Phần kế tiếp sẽ tìm hiểu người Việt tại Thái Lan)

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