9/11/1989 khi “bức tường ngăn cách thiên đàng XHCN Đông Đức với Tây Đức”sụp đổ- Katrin Bennhold (New York Times)

The Communist regime was prepared for everything “except candles and prayers.” East Germany’s peaceful 1989 revolution showed that societies that don’t reform, die.

East German police sprayed water on West Germans as they broke through the wall at the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin on Nov. 11, 1989.
East German police sprayed water on West Germans as they broke through the wall at the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin on Nov. 11, 1989.Credit…Anthony Suau
Katrin Bennhold

By Katrin Bennhold

BERLIN — When Werner Krätschell, an East German pastor and dissident, heard that the Berlin Wall was open, he did not quite believe it. But he grabbed his daughter and her friend and drove to the nearest checkpoint to see for himself. 

It was the night of Nov. 9, 1989. As their yellow Wartburg advanced unimpeded into what had always been an off-limits security zone, Mr. Krätschell rolled down the window and asked a border guard: “Am I dreaming or is this reality?”

“You are dreaming,” the guard replied.

West Berliners tearing down part of the wall as East German guards looked on, on Nov. 11, 1989.
West Berliners tearing down part of the wall as East German guards looked on, on Nov. 11, 1989.Credit…Keith Pannell/Mail on Sunday, via Reuters
Celebrating the fall of the wall at the Brandenburger Gate on New Years’ Eve in 1989.
Celebrating the fall of the wall at the Brandenburger Gate on New Years’ Eve in 1989.Credit…Guy Le Querrec/Magnum Photos
A young man straddling the wall between East and West Berlin.
A young man straddling the wall between East and West Berlin.Credit…Raymond Depardon/Magnum Photos

It had long been a dream for East Berliners like Mr. Krätschell to see this towering symbol of unfreedom running like a scar of cement and barbed wire through the heart of their home city ripped open. 

And when it finally became reality, when the Cold War’s most notorious armed border opened overnight, and was torn apart in the days that followed, it was not in the end the result of some carefully crafted geopolitical grand bargain. 

It was, at the most basic level at least, the wondrous result of human error, spontaneity and individual courage. 

“It was not predestined,” said Anne Applebaum, the historian and columnist. “It was not a triumph of good over evil. It was basically incompetence — and chance.”

Workers building a section of the wall on Bernauer Strasse in 1961 as police from West Berlin watched.
Workers building a section of the wall on Bernauer Strasse in 1961 as police from West Berlin watched.Credit…Agence France-Presse
A mass demonstration against construction of the Berlin Wall on Aug. 16, 1961.
A mass demonstration against construction of the Berlin Wall on Aug. 16, 1961.Credit…Terry Fincher/Mirrorpix, via Getty Images
Women talking across a barbed wire fence in August 1961.
Women talking across a barbed wire fence in August 1961.Credit…Patrice Habans/Paris Match, via Getty Images

In the early evening of that fateful November day, a news conference took a historic turn.

Against the backdrop of mass protests and a wave of eastern German refugees that had already fled the country via Hungary and what was then Czechoslovakia, Günter Schabowski, the leader of the East Berlin Communist Party, convened journalists to announce a series of reforms to ease travel restrictions.

When asked when the new rules would take effect, Mr. Schabowski paused and studied the notes before him with a furrowed brow. Then he stumbled through a partially intelligible answer, declaring, “It takes effect, as far as I know… it is now… immediately.”

Children pretending to build a wall in West Berlin in 1962.
Children pretending to build a wall in West Berlin in 1962.Credit…Raymond Depardon/Magnum Photos
The wall separated East Berlin, on the right, from West Berlin, on the left.
The wall separated East Berlin, on the right, from West Berlin, on the left.Credit…Dominique Berretty/Gamma-Rapho, via Getty Images
Westerners looking over the wall in 1961 while it was still low enough to see over.
Westerners looking over the wall in 1961 while it was still low enough to see over.Credit…Burt Glinn/Magnum Photos

It was a mistake. The Politburo had planned nothing of the sort. The idea had been to appease the growing resistance movement with minor adjustments to visa rules — and also to retain the power to deny travel.

But many took Mr. Schabowski by his word. After West Germany’s main evening news, popular with East Germans who had long stopped trusting their own state-controlled media, effectively declared the wall open, crowds started heading for checkpoints at the Berlin Wall, demanding to cross.

At one of those checkpoints, a Stasi officer who had always been loyal to the regime, was working the night shift. His name was Lt. Col. Harald Jäger. And his order was to turn people away.

A 19-year-old East German police officer, Conrad Schumann, left, just before he jumped into the West, right, on Aug. 15, 1961.
A 19-year-old East German police officer, Conrad Schumann, left, just before he jumped into the West, right, on Aug. 15, 1961.Credit…Chronos Media/ullstein bild, via Getty Images

As the crowd grew, the colonel repeatedly called his superiors with updates. But no new orders were forthcoming. At some point he listened in to a call with the ministry, where he overheard one senior official questioning his judgment.

“Someone in the ministry asked whether Comrade Jäger was in a position to assess the situation properly or whether he was acting out of fear,” Mr. Jäger recalled years later in an interview with Der Spiegel. “When I heard that, I’d had enough.”

“If you don’t believe me, then just listen!” he shouted down the line, then took the receiver and held it out the window.

East Berliners fled with what they could carry to the West after news of the wall’s construction spread.
East Berliners fled with what they could carry to the West after news of the wall’s construction spread.Credit…Dpa/picture alliance, via Getty Images
A woman being helped as she escaped through a tunnel under the wall in 1964.
A woman being helped as she escaped through a tunnel under the wall in 1964.Credit…Fuchs/Hulton Archive, via Getty Images
West Berliners erecting a memorial for Peter Fechter, who was shot by border guards while attempting to escape over the wall in 1962.
West Berliners erecting a memorial for Peter Fechter, who was shot by border guards while attempting to escape over the wall in 1962.Credit…Wieczorek/ullstein bild, via Getty Images

Shortly after, Mr. Jäger defied his superiors and opened the crossing, starting a domino effect that eventually hit all checkpoints in Berlin. By midnight, triumphant easterners had climbed on top of the wall in the heart of the city, popping champagne corks and setting off fireworks in celebration.

Not a single shot was fired. And no Soviet tanks appeared. 

That, said Axel Klausmeier, director of the Berlin Wall Foundation, was perhaps the greatest miracle of that night. “It was a peaceful revolution, the first of its kind,” he said. “They were prepared for everything, except candles and prayers.”

American tanks at Checkpoint Charlie on Friedrichstrasse in 1961.
American tanks at Checkpoint Charlie on Friedrichstrasse in 1961.Credit…Czechatz/ullstein bild, via Getty Images
West Berliners confronting East German officers at Checkpoint Charlie on the 25th anniversary of the wall in 1986.
West Berliners confronting East German officers at Checkpoint Charlie on the 25th anniversary of the wall in 1986.Credit…Stiebing/ullstein bild, via Getty Images
Looking through the wire from the West to East Berlin on Stallschreiberstrasse in 1961.
Looking through the wire from the West to East Berlin on Stallschreiberstrasse in 1961.Credit…Jurgen Schadeberg/Getty Images

Through its history more than 140 people had died at the Berlin Wall, the vast majority of them trying to escape. 

There was Ida Siekmann, 58, who became the first victim on Aug. 22, 1961, just nine days after the wall was finished. She died jumping from her third-floor window after the front of her house on Bernauer Strasse had become became part of the border, the front door filled in with bricks. 

Peter Fechter, 18, became the most famous victim a year later. Shot several times in the back as he scaled the wall, he fell back onto the eastern side where he lay for over an hour, shouting for help and bleeding to death, as eastern guards looked on and western cameras whirled.

The youngest victim was 15-month-old Holger H., who suffocated when his mother tried to quiet him while the truck his family was hiding in was being searched on Jan. 22, 1971. The parents made it across before realizing that their baby was dead.

For the first half of 1989, it was still nearly impossible to get out of East Germany: The last killing at the wall took place in February that year, the last shooting, a close miss, in April. 

The Soviets had squashed an East German uprising in June 1953 and suppressed similar rebellions in Hungary in 1956 and Prague in 1968

In June 1989, just five months before the Berlin Wall fell, the Communist Party of China committed a massacre against democracy protesters in Tiananmen Square.

East Berliners in the subway in 1980.
East Berliners in the subway in 1980.Credit…Harald Hauswald/Ostkreuz
West Berlin soon after the start of the construction of the wall.
West Berlin soon after the start of the construction of the wall.Credit…Terry Fincher/Mirrorpix, via Getty Images
An East Berlin dance tournament in 1982  beneath portraits of Communist Party leaders.
An East Berlin dance tournament in 1982  beneath portraits of Communist Party leaders.Credit…Harald Hauswald/Ostkreuz

“They had been shooting people for 40 years,” said Ms. Applebaum, the historian. “No one knew what they would do in 1989.”

But 1989 proved different. In the end, what gave people courage to resist were a series of shocks that had already shaken Soviet Communism to the core.

Poland’s successful Solidarity movement, which had culminated in a semi-free election that year, was one. Others included a series of social and political reforms across Soviet-controlled Eastern Europe with which the Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev hoped to preserve — not end — his Communist Party’s control.

And perhaps most important, Ms. Applebaum said, belief in the system had long evaporated. 

A government convoy driving by a sign reading, “Long live Marxism-Leninism,” in Mitte, East Berlin, in 1980.
A government convoy driving by a sign reading, “Long live Marxism-Leninism,” in Mitte, East Berlin, in 1980.Credit…Harald Hauswald/Ostkreuz

“The ideology had collapsed and people just didn’t believe in it anymore,” she said. 

That is how the little things that culminated in this historic moment could become big things, said Timothy Garton Ash, professor of European history at Oxford University. But that is sometimes misunderstood.

“We took one of the most non-linear events and turned it into a linear version of history,” said Mr. Garton Ash. 

The fall of the Berlin Wall became the end of history and liberalism the unchallenged model of modernity. Now illiberalism, Chinese-style, is challenging the West.

Children playing at the Berlin Wall in Wedding in 1963.
Children playing at the Berlin Wall in Wedding in 1963.Credit…Thomas Hoepker/Magnum Photos
The graveyard in Bernauer Strasse, divided by the wall.
The graveyard in Bernauer Strasse, divided by the wall.Credit…Gadewoltz/ullstein bild, via Getty Images
Two brothers reunited in 1963, when for the first time West Berliners were allowed to cross to the East to spend the Christmas with their relatives.
Two brothers reunited in 1963, when for the first time West Berliners were allowed to cross to the East to spend the Christmas with their relatives.Credit…Ian Berry/Magnum Photos

Complacency is dangerous, said Ms. Applebaum: “The lesson is: Societies that don’t reform, die.”

Mr. Krätschell, the pastor, had been among those demanding reforms and protesting the system with peaceful means. He held dissident meetings in his home and was harassed by the Stasi, East Germany’s fearsome secret police, for years. The churches played an important role in the resistance movement against East Germany’s Communist authorities. 

“We knew: All the phone calls were bugged,” said Mr. Krätschell, now 79.

Years later, after reading his own Stasi file, he learned that special commandos had bugged his home, updating the technology whenever he was on holiday with his family. 

The opening of the border crossing at Bernauer Strasse.
The opening of the border crossing at Bernauer Strasse.Credit…Günter Peters/ullstein bild, via Getty Images
Soldiers atop the wall amid celebrations.
Soldiers atop the wall amid celebrations.Credit…Stephen Ferry/Liaison, via Getty Images
East Germans celebrating as they entered West Berlin in a Trabant on Nov. 13, 1989.
East Germans celebrating as they entered West Berlin in a Trabant on Nov. 13, 1989.Credit…Christopher Morris/VII

Soon after Mr. Krätschell, the pastor, had driven across the border on Nov. 9, 1989, a friend of his daughter who was also in the car asked him to pull over. She was 21 and pregnant and had never set foot in the West before. 

Once Mr. Krätschell had parked, she opened the door, stuck her leg out, and touched the floor with her foot. Then she smiled triumphantly.

“It was like the moon landing,” recalled Mr. Krätschell, “a kind of Neil Armstrong moment.” 

Later, back in the East, she had called her parents and said, “Guess what, I was in the West.”

Thousands rushed to the wall in the first few days after its opening.
Thousands rushed to the wall in the first few days after its opening.Credit…Robert Wallis/Corbis, via Getty Images

Opinion | Serge SchmemannAfter the Fall: Looking Back on Berlin 30 Years LaterNov. 8, 2019


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